Unlocking Denmark’s CCS potential
Project Bifrost aims at unlocking the potential for CCS in Denmark’s North Sea by reusing the existing infrastructure related to current oil and gas operations. The infrastructure consists of depleted offshore oil and gas fields owned by the DUC partners, as well as the pipelines connecting to shore, which are owned by Ørsted.
The project aims at a permanent geologic storage of CO2, effectively building bridges from current fossil fuel extraction to carbon neutrality. Bifrost will therefore play a key role in reaching the Danish decarbonization goals, while at the same time providing an alternative to the work force currently connected to oil and gas production.
Bifrost was awarded its full funding request from the ‘Energy Technology Development and Demonstration Programme’ (EUDP) – a Danish public subsidy scheme.
Sandstone vs chalk
The project focuses on the Harald field in the North Sea. The field has two developed gas reservoirs: The Harald West sandstone and the Harald East chalk. Bifrost seeks to demonstrate the reuse of existing wells for injection and storage of CO2 in the sandstone reservoir.
Further, an important part of project Bifrost is to demonstrate the feasibility of CO2 storage in chalk reservoirs. This will enable a substantial scale-up for the geological storage potential in Danish waters, as other DUC chalk fields may be repurposed for CO2 storage as production ceases.
Bifrost will also analyse ad demonstrate how to transport the CO2 to the storage facilities as well as assess environmental risks. In addition to the technological development, the project will advance monitoring technologies and protocols as well as improved understanding of the socio-economic aspects associated with CCS.
Bifrost is a two-year project running in 2022 and 2023. During this period, the project partners will perform all the groundwork necessary to initiate large-scale transportation and storage.
The CCS operations in the Harald reservoirs are expected to begin in 2027 with an estimated startup storage capacity of 3 million metric tons of CO2 per year (m/tpa). The long-term vision is to store up to 16 m/tpa once the other DUC fields become available for storage.
The project aims to solve the most important technical challenges for CO2 transport and storage in the depleted reservoirs in the Danish North Sea. The five specific objectives are:
- Objective 1: To demonstrate the use of depleted hydrocarbon reservoirs for CO2 storage and the corresponding facilities for CO2 injection.
- Objective 2: To confirm the potential of Harald East chalk reservoir for CO2 storage and thereby unlock the large chalk reservoir storage potential in the DUC portfolio.
- Objective 3: To determine the infrastructures necessary for CO2 transportation (pipeline and shipping) and the offshore floating offloading facilities towards CO2 storage.
- Objective 4: To monitor environmental risks of CCS, including focus on innovative monitoring technologies.
- Objective 5: To study public acceptance and the socio-economic impact of CCS.
The Bifrost consortium
The Bifrost project is led by a consortium consisting of the DUC partners (TotalEnergies, BlueNord, and Nordsøfonden), Ørsted, and DTU.
As DUC operator, TotalEnergies will lead the CCS partnership and perform technical studies of the reuse of the Harald field infrastructure for CO2 storage as well as CO2 transportation by ship.
Ørsted owns the pipeline infrastructure connecting the DUC offshore fields and installations to shore. Ørsted will conduct technical studies for repurposing of the existing pipeline infrastructure to CO2 transportation.
DTU Offshore is the academic partner delivering technical studies. This implies laboratory testing, numerical simulations, and development of innovative technologies for monitoring. Further, socioeconomic studies are conducted by DTU Management in order to explore sector integration, the positive impacts of innovation, export opportunities, and job creation from a new CCS industry.